The reason for this discrepancy is unknown, but it is very likely that the frequent hormonal changes in women play a role. The mood disorders linked to ovarian hormones and their derivatives are referred to as reproductive depression. We have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms of ovarian cycle linked mood changes in mice and have characterized a mouse model of postpartum depression. Our findings in this latter model constitutes the basis for successful novel clinical trials providing hope for the first treatment of this devastating condition in women. We are presently working on a transitionally valid mouse model of menopause to address the higher prevalence of both, depression and Alzheimer’s disease in women following menopausal hormonal changes.